Director : K─▒dey┼č, Ahmet Erkan; B.S., Selçuk University; M.S., METU; Ph.D., University of Liverpool.

Associate Director: TU─×RUL, Süleyman; B.S., M.S., Ph.D., METU.

Associate Director: SAL─░HO─×LU, Bar─▒┼č; B.S., M.S., METU; Ph.D., Old Dominion University.




KIDEY┼×, Ahmet Erkan (Director): B.S., Selçuk University; M.S., METU; Ph.D., University of Liverpool.

ÖZSOY, Emin: B.S., METU; M.S., University of Miami; Ph.D., University of Florida.

TU─×RUL, Süleyman (Associate Director): B.S., M.S., Ph.D., METU.

UYSAL, Zahit: B.S., Ege University; M.S., Ph.D., METU.

YEMEN─░C─░O─×LU, Semal: B.S., M.S., Ph.D., METU.

YILMAZ, Ay┼čen: B.S., Hacettepe University; M.S., Ph.D., METU.




GÜCÜ, Ali Cemal: B.S., Ege University; M.S., Ph.D., METU.




FACH SAL─░HO─×LU, Bettina A.: B.S., M.S., Fachhochschule Wilhelmshaven;

                                                 Ph.D., Old Dominion University.

SAL─░HO─×LU, Bar─▒┼č (Associate Director): B.S., M.S., METU; Ph.D., Old Dominion University.

KOÇAK, Mustafa: B.S., Ege University; M.S., Ph.D., METU.

ARKIN, Sinan ┼×adi: B.A., Johns Hopkins University; M.S., Ph.D., Imperial College London.




IBELLO, Valeria: B.S., M.S., Ph.D., Università degli Studi di Napoli–Federico II.




GENERAL INFORMATION: The Graduate School of Marine Sciences offers curricula in Atmospheric Sciences, Chemical Oceanography, Marine Biology and Fisheries, Marine Geology and Geophysics, and Physical Oceanography. The programs are envisioned to provide future scientists with thorough education and training in their fields. Special emphasis is given to studying the national marine environment, in keeping with the Institute's objectives of developing and improving the marine resources of Turkey.


Students with a B.S. degree (or equivalent) in one of the natural sciences or engineering, and interest in working at sea may apply. Experience with computers is desirable. Training of graduate students is greatly enhanced by active participation in research programs carried out at sea, and in the laboratories of the Institute.


The Institutes' campus is situated in Erdemli, about 45 km west of Mersin on the southern coast of Turkey. Office buildings, laboratories, computing and remote sensing facilities, a library and other services are located within the campus. Housing for staff and students and a harbor facility are also located on campus.


RESEARCH INTEREST AND FACILITIES: The Institute is involved in research in the seas surrounding Turkey. The research encompasses a wide range of topics in the disciplines offered by the Institute. Some of the recent studies are field investigations and numerical modeling of the general oceanic circulation, water mass formation and exchange between the ocean basins, ecosystem modeling and pollution studies, nutrient dynamics, primary production, fish population dynamics, fish stock assessment studies, marine biodiversity, plankton dynamics, exotic and invasive species, conservation biology and endangered species, marine protected areas (MPA), acoustical methods in fisheries science, topography and structure of sub-bottom sediments and rocks, and application of remote sensing to oceanography, the interactions between marine environment and genome, identify the origin and diversity of organisms (Population genetics and DNA barcoding study), and also affection of pollutant on genome (from the gene to the ecosystem) is searching with gene expression. Major emphasis is given to long term, multi-national cooperative studies, providing basin wide comprehensive data sets for analyses.

The Graduate School of Marine Sciences has the following research facilities available for training and research:


Research vessels: The Institutes' research ship, the 40 m R/V Bilim 2, is equipped for biological, chemical, geophysical and physical studies, as well as for fisheries research. The ship has a capacity of staying out at sea for 45 days with a group of about 14 scientists. The 16 m Lamas 1 is a trawler and equipped for demersal and acoustic fisheries surveys in and beyond the Turkish territorial waters in the eastern Mediterranean. The third vessel, Erdemli is a Gulet for near-shore oceanographic surveys; which is also suitable for diving.


Computing facilities: The computing facilities at the Institute include local multi-processor systems (several blade and workstation configurations up to 128 cores and 50 Gb memory), in a continuous state of development by new additions, high speed LAN at 10Gb and 1GB, wireless networks, peripheral equipment such as printers, plotters, A/D converters, numerous desktop and laptop PC's, and communication interfaces.


Remote Sensing: Institute has an extensive high resolution data archive from NOAA AVHRR, Seawifs and Modis Satellites. Regional Cilmatologic Data products are available through the web interface for model verification and climate research. Satellite receiving facilities are no longer available; instead satellite data is downloading via international data centers (NASA, ESA) and processing in the institute.


Laboratories and Equipment: An 800 square meters of Marine Ecosystem and Climate Research Center (DEKOS─░M) laboratory is available in campus. Biology, chemistry, geology labs and instrument maintenance rooms are included in this laboratory.


Major Laboratory Equipment:


Atomic absorption spectrophotometer, HPLC, Gas chromatography, UV-VIS Spectrophotometer, Spectrofluorometer, CHN Element analyzer, Dissolved oxygen meter, Isotop (C14 and H 3) Measuring system, LI 1800 uw Underwater Spectroradiometer, Portable incubators for fecal coliforms and primary production analysis, Mini-fluorometer, Stereomicroscope systems (epifluorescence, image analysis systems), Flow Cytometer, 4-channel auto-analyser, Ion Chromatography, High volume air samplers with size selective sampling inlet, Wet precipitation sampler, Nepholemeter, Sun photometer, PM10 particle sampler, and High volume particle sampler, ICP mass spectrometer, Real Time Thermal Cycler (PCR machine) Roche 480, Thermal cyclers (PCR machines) BIORAD, Gel electrophoresis apparatuses, Gel documentation system.


              Field Equipment:


Mooring systems with underwater Seabird Temperature, Conductivity, Dissolved oxygen, Chlorophyll Fluorometer, Turbidity sensors and surface meteorological instruments.

Seabird CTD profiling system, Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler, Seabird Rosette samplers (8lt and 12lt), large volume Nansen bottles, 120 kHz SIMRAD – EY60 portable scientific echosounder, 38, 120 and 200 kHz SIMRAD - EK60 hull-mounted scientific echosounders, COSMOS pelagic /bottom trawl nets and hydrophones/trawl sensors, passive hydrophones for marine mammal detection, WP2 plankton closing net, Nansen closing net, Hensen net, Fishing nets, Automatic Winkler titration system, In-situ fluorometer, Irradiance meter, Uniboom shallow seismic system, Current meters, Precision depth recorder, Knudsen 320B Rockmount subbottom profiling and side scan sonar system, various corers. 





MASC    500   M.S. Research and Thesis      NC

MASC    501   Seminars in Marine Sciences                                          (0-2)NC

MASC    502   Seminars in Marine Sciences                                          (0-2)NC

MASC    503   Introduction to Oceanography                                        (3-0)3

MASC    511   Marine Pollution               (3-0)3

MASC    512   Chemical Oceanography    (3-0)3

MASC    513   Conventional and New

                       Techniques in Chemical                                  Oceanography         (3-0)3

MASC    514   Advanced Chemical                                        Oceanography         (3-0)3

MASC    516   Marine Organic Chemistry


MASC    518   Marine Analytical Chemistry                                          (3-0)3

MASC    519   Physical Chemistry of the                               Oceans    (3-0)3

MASC    520   Processes of the Euphotic Zone                                     (3-0)3

MASC    521   Nutrient Chemistry            (3-0)3

MASC    523   Marine Surface Chemistry (3-0)3

MASC    525   Chemistry of Redox Dependent

                       Processes                          (3-0)3

MASC    526   Atmospheric Chemistry    (3-0)3

MASC    528   Geochemical Cycles          (3-0)3

MASC    530   Introduction to Physical                                  Oceanography         (3-0)3

MASC    531   Dynamic Oceanography I:

                       Fluid Dynamics                 (3-0)3

MASC    532   Dynamic Oceanography II:                             Rotating Fluids        (3-0)3

MASC    533   Oceanographic Methods    (3-0)3

MASC    534   Waves I: Linear Waves     (3-0)3

MASC    535   Waves II: Non-Linear Waves


MASC    536   Structure and Function of                               Marine Ecosystems                (3-0)3

MASC    537   Turbulence                        (3-0)3

MASC    538   Boundary Layers              (3-0)3

MASC    540   Ecosystem of the Mediterranean

                                                                Waters    (3-0)3

MASC    541   Mixing and Diffusion Processes                                     (3-0)3

MASC    542   Fish fauna of the Turkish Seas


MASC    544   Dynamic Meteorology       (3-0)3

MASC    545   Estuarine Chemistry and                                 Processes (3-0)3

MASC    546   Computational Fluid Dynamics                                      (3-0)3

MASC    547   Modelling in Marine                                       Environment I         (3-0)3

MASC    548   Modeling in Marine                                        Environment II       (3-0)3

MASC    549   Stratified Fluids                 (3-0)3

MASC    550   Satellite Oceanography      (3-0)3

MASC    551   Marine Geophysics           (3-0)3

MASC    552   Siliclastic Sequence                                         Stratigraphy             (3-0)3

MASC    553   Carbonate Sequence

                       Stratigraphy                       (3-0)3

MASC    555   Fisheries Acoustics           (3-0)3

MASC    557   Acoustical Oceanography  (3-0)3

MASC    558   Introduction to Fisheries Science


MASC    567   Advanced Topics in                                        Oceanographic Data Processing                                                             (3-0)3

MASC    568   Signal Processing              (3-0)3

MASC    569   Phytoplankton Pigments in

                       Oceanography                   (3-0)3

MASC    570   Bio Statistics                     (3-0)3

MASC    571   Marine Ecology                 (3-0)3

MASC    573   Fisheries Oceanography    (3-0)3

MASC    574   Microbiology of Water      (3-0)3

MASC    575   Dynamics of Fish Populations                                        (3-0)3

MASC    576   Biological Aspects of Marine

                                                            Pollution    (3-0)3

MASC    577   Production in the Sea        (3-0)3

MASC    578   Marine Biology                 (3-0)3

MASC    579   Hydrobiology                    (3-0)3

MASC    580   Marine Benthos                 (3-0)3

MASC    581   Marine Planktonology-I:

                       Phytoplankton                   (3-0)3

MASC    582   Marine Planktonology-II:

                       Zooplankton                     (3-0)3

MASC    583   Marine Geology                (3-0)3

MASC    584   Bathymetric Mapping        (3-0)3

MASC    585   Tectonics                          (3-0)3

MASC    586   Marine Sedimentology      (3-0)3

MASC    587   Introduction to Seismic                                   Stratigraphy             (3-0)3

MASC    588   Geochemistry of Sediments (3-0)3

MASC    589   Geology of Continental                                   Margins   (3-0)3

MASC    590   Marine Minerals                (3-0)3

MASC    591   Marine Seismic Methods I (3-0)3

MASC    592   Marine Seismic Methods II (3-0)3

MASC    593   X-Ray Identification of                                   Sedimentary Minerals             (3-0)3

MASC    595   Depositional Sedimentary

                       Environment                     (3-0)3

MASC    596   Special Topics in Marine                                Sciences  (3-0)3

MASC    597   Special Topics in Marine                                Sciences  (3-0)3

MASC    598   Special Topics in Marine                                Sciences  (3-0)3

MASC    599   Special Topics in Marine                                Sciences  (3-0)3

MASC    600   Ph.D. Research and Thesis     NC

MASC    601   Seminars in Marine Sciences                                          (0-2)NC

MASC    602   Seminars in Marine Sciences                                          (0-2)NC

MASC    800-899 Advanced and Special Studies                                   in Marine Sciences  NC





MASC    500  M.S. Research and Thesis      NC


MASC    501  Seminars in Marine Sciences                                          (2-0) NC


MASC    502  Seminars in Marine Sciences                                          (2-0) NC


MASC    503  Introduction to Oceanography                                     (3-0)3

Biological Oceanography: Marine plants and animals. Energy fixation, growth and abundance of organisms. Seasonality of production.

Chemical Oceanography: Chemical properties of sea water, alkalinity, C, N, P and S cycles, oxic and anoxic environments, redox processes.

Geological and Geophysical Oceanography: Evolution of the earth and morphology; minerals, rocks and sediments, basics of echo-sounding, sub-bottom profiling and side-scanning sonar methods.

Physical Oceanography: Physical properties of sea water, oceanic circulation, waves, oceanographic processes in the Turkish Seas.


MASC    511  Marine Pollution              (3-0)3

General aspects of marine pollution, pollution; pollution from land-based sources; atmospheric input; distribution of pollutants in the marine environment; environmental impacts; strategies of marine pollution monitoring; trend monitoring, legislation.


MASC    512  Chemical Oceanography  (3-0)3

Principal physical and chemical properties of water and sea water; chemical composition of sea water; conservative/nonconservative and dissolved/ particulate components of sea water; source and sink terms; processes in the sea; nutrient and carbon cycles in the oceans; standard methods for chemical analysis of sea water.


MASC    513  Conventional and New

                       Techniques in Chemical

                       Oceanography                  (3-0)3

Sampling techniques dissolved and particulate chemical constituents in the marine environments (air, seawater, biota, sediment sampling); preservation techniques; in-situ and near real time measurements; instrumentation on board and laboratory; remote sensing techniques; processing interpretation and presentation of chemical data.


MASC    514  Advanced Chemical                                       Oceanography       (3-0)3

Advanced physical chemistry of sea water, dynamic equilibria in the chemical systems in the ocean. Chemistry of interstitial waters; formation and geochemistry of sediments. Chemical models of the ocean.


MASC    516  Marine Organic Chemistry


Sources and sink terms of natural organic compounds in aquatic environments; their chemistry and distributions; interactions with metal ions, burial rates in sediments and their diagenesis.


MASC    518  Marine Analytical Chemistry                                        (3-0)3

A review of some elementary concepts in analytical chemistry; statistics used for the evaluation of analytical data; ionic equilibria in aquatic environment; solubility of ionic salts; acid dissociation and pH-pC diagrams; redox potential and pH-pE diagrams.


MASC    519  Physical Chemistry of the                              Oceans    (3-0)3

Fundamentals of hydrodynamics and physical oceanography; diffusion; differential equations of the conversation of mass and their analytical and numerical solution; plumes; the physical chemistry of water and of concentrated electrolytes; collides and their coagulation.


MASC    520  Processes in the Euphotic Zone                                      (3-0)3

The optical properties of the upper water column; photosynthetic activity; light adaptation; nutrient availability; nutrient uptake kinetics; primary production; remineralization processes and grazing; general aspects of the ecosystem of the lower trophic levels in the marine environment.


MASC    521  Nutrient Chemistry          (3-0)3

Speciation of nutrients in seawater; sampling and measurement techniques; sources and removal processes; spatial and temporal distributions in the oceans and enclosed seas; nitrogen and phosphorus cycles in the sea, factors controlling the Redfield ratio (N:P); concepts of preformed and oxidized nutrients.


MASC    523  Marine Surface Chemistry        


Importance of interfaces especially between air-water and water-solid surfaces on the material transport and speciation; chemistry of surfaces; their composition.


MASC    525  Chemistry of Redox Dependent

                       Processes                           (3-0)3

Chemistry of redox sensitive elements in water and sediments of oxic anoxic nature; redox processes controlling the vertical distributions of nitrogen, sulfur, iron and manganese in marine environments; environmental conditions controlling the rate of redox reactions; coupling and zonation of different redox cycles.


MASC    526 Atmospheric Chemistry     (3-0)3

The goal of this course is to lay out a frame work of principles that can be used to understand air pollution and global change problems. It will start with defining the basic physical and chemical principles governing the natural and polluted atmosphere. Then they will be applied to specific problems related to pollution and global change such as indoor pollution, urban photochemical smog, acid rain, stratospheric ozone depletion, greenhouse warming and climate forcing due to atmospheric aerosols. The course will also include some elements of air pollution statistics and introduction to the atmospheric chemical transport models.


MASC    528  Geochemical Cycles          (3-0)3

Descriptive and quantitative aspects of earth as bio-geochemical system; fundamental study methods of equilibria; transport processes; chemical kinetics; biological processes; their application to carbon, sulfur, nitrogen, phosphorus and other elemental cycles; stability of bio-geochemical systems; nature of human perturbation of their dynamics.


MASC    530  Introduction to Physical                                Oceanography       (3-0)3

Physical property fields, currents, waves and tides, general circulation of the oceans, T-S analysis, ocean-atmosphere interaction, oceanographic processes in the Turkish Seas.


MASC    531  Dynamic Oceanography I:                            Fluid Dynamics      (3-0)3

Basic review of calculus, physical properties of fluids, kinematics of the flow field, conservation of mass, forces and deformations in a moving fluid, stress and rate of strain tensors, derivation of the equations of motion, transformation to rotating earth, Bernoulli theorem, vorticity dynamics, viscous and irrotational flow examples for incompressible homogeneous fluids.


MASC    532  Dynamic Oceanography II:                           Rotating Fluids      (3-0)3

Geophysical fluid dynamics, equations of motion applied to the ocean, Basic balances leading to geostrophic flow, inertial motion. Geostrophic degeneracy and closure. Shallow water equations, inertia-gravity and Kelvin waves, shelf waves, Rossby waves, quasi-geostrophic theory. Wind driven ocean circulation, examples of geophysical fluid dynamics problems.


MASC    533  Oceanographic Methods  (3-0)3

Theory of measurement systems, accuracy and resolution, mechanical and electronic systems, analog and digital data transmission, automated systems. Design of surveys, cruise plans, operational and safety procedures, ship-borne, autonomous, fixed platform and satellite measurements, oceanographic instrumentation. Temperature, salinity, oxygen, current, tide and wave measurements, echo-sounding, navigation and positioning. Chemical oceanographic sampling and analyses, plankton sampling, productivity measurements, bottom sampling and sedimentary analyses, seismic sounding.


MASC    534  Waves I: Linear Waves    (3-0)3

Irrotational motions with free boundaries, perturbations, linear and nonlinear theories, periodic and random waves, momentum and energy fluxes. Wave progression, dispersion, modulation, reflection, refraction, scattering, diffraction, radiation and the notions of phase and group velocities. The Cauchy-Poission problem, wave makers, wind waves, capillary and long waves, basin and edge waves, waves on beaches.


MASC    535  Waves II: Non-Linear Waves                                        (3-0)3

Stokes 2nd order approximation, mass transport, radiation stresses with application to waves on current, short wave modulation of long waves, waves on beaches. Wave-wave interactions, long-waves of small amplitude and dispersion: the Boussinesq and k-dV equations, solitary waves and solutions.


MASC    536  Structure and Function of

                       Marine Ecosystems           (3-0)3

Introduction to large ecosystems of the world oceans; Arctic, Pacific, Atlatic and Southern Oceans; Marginal Seas and Estuaries; El Niño Southern Oscillation and North Atlantic Oscillation, influence of physical properties on ecosystem dynamics, influence of climate variability and climate change on ecosystem dynamics.


MASC    537  Turbulence                        (3-0)3

Turbulent motions, equations of motion, turbulent energy, Reynolds stress, energy flow, inhomogeneous fluids, conservation of scalar properties, Richardson number. Fundamentals of boundary layer theory, turbulent boundary layers, similarity theory and statistics. Effects of wall roughness, viscous sub-layers and turbulent skin friction. Oceanic and atmospheric mixed layer dynamics.





MASC    538  Boundary Layer               (3-0)3

Fundamentals of boundary layer theory. Transfer of momentum, vorticity and heat across boundary layer, Laminar, turbulent and transition flows. Effects of wall roughness. Skin friction and forces on bodies. Types of oceanic and atmospheric boundary layers with applications to upwelling and circulation.


MASC    540  Ecosystem of the

                       Mediterranean Waters     (3-0)3

The history and evolution of the Mediterranean. Sun wind and rain. Circulation of the Mediterranean waters. Light and translucency. Life in Mediterranean water system, plankton, benthos, the sand, rocks and caves.


MASC    541  Mixing and Diffusion                                     Processes (3-0)3

Convection, diffusion and dispersion of conservative and non-conservative substances in the ocean and the atmosphere. Turbulent diffusion of momentum, and scalar properties, convection in stratified fluids, and mixing length theories. Surface mixed layers in the atmosphere and the ocean, entrainment and mixing layer development, radiative and turbulent transfer of heat, momentum, buoyancy and moisture at the surface.


MASC    542 Fish fauna of the Turkish Seas   


The course contains various biological aspects of the fishes inhabiting Turkish seas, including feeding habits, spawning strategies, growth patterns, origin, migration habitat partitioning of the ecologically and commercially important species. The field-work, in which students practice fish identification, is carried out in a trawl survey and around the institute’s harbor by snorkeling.


MASC    544  Dynamic Meteorology      (3-0)3

Atmospheric thermodynamics, wet and dry equations of state, adiabatic relationships, geopotential and potential temperature, equations of motion; shallow-water, Boussinesq and quasi-geostrophic approximations, gradient and thermal wind, energy conversions. Hadley circulation, jet streams and fronts, frontogenesis and cyclogenesis, air masses, structure and mechanics of the general circulation and mid-latitude synoptic systems, planetary boundary layers.


MASC    545  Estuarine Chemistry and                               Processes (3-0)3

Definitions, formation, estuary classification. Physical and chemical processes in estuaries, material transport in to the estuaries; major elements and nutrients, their average abundances in estuarine waters; the reactions and speciation of trace elements; organics and biochemistry of estuaries; some aspects of estuarine sedimentary processes; human impact on estuaries.


MASC    546  Computational Fluid                                      Dynamics                (3-0)3

Modeling and solution of flow field partial differential equations. Spatial discretizations, time-stepping; accuracy, stability and generality considerations, numerical diffusion, dispersion. Vorticity stream function and primitive variable formulations. Applications to external and internal flows.


MASC    547  Modeling in Marine                                        Environment I        (3-0)3

Mathematical models of circulation, mass transport and propagation, finite difference techniques, grid systems, numerical consistency, stability and convergence, numerical diffusion, conservative advection schemes. Primitive equations, quasigeostrophic and shallow water models, solution techniques for ordinary and partial differential equations arising in the marine environment, operational models and data assimilation.


MASC    548  Modeling in Marine                                        Environment II       (3-0)3

Numerical techniques in models of marine ecosystems; Predator-Prey Models, Scale analysis and Lagrangian Models, Nutrient and Phytoplankton Models, Zooplankton Models, Ecosystem Models.


MASC    549  Stratified Fluids                (3-0)3

Density stratification in rotating and non-rotating fluids, conservation laws, thermodynamic and state equations, Boussinesq and quasigeostrophic approximation. Internal waves, instability theories, turbulent shear flows, buoyant, thermal and thermohaline convection mechanisms. Plumes, thermals, convection cells, salt finger and diffusive types of double-diffusive transport, fronts and intrusions.


MASC    550  Satellite Oceanography    (3-0)3

The course is oriented towards providing a basic understanding of the application of satellite-obtained data to oceanography. Topics to be covered include description of hardware, principles of data transmission, remote sensing of the sea and image processing.


MASC    551  Marine Geophysics           (3-0)3

Principles of the geophysical surveys carried out at sea. Positioning techniques, sea bed imaging, seismic exploration, seismic data acquisition, marine gravity, earth's magnetic field, heat flow, investigations of the sea floor using electrical methods and seabed exploration using radiometric methods.


MASC    552  Siliclastic Sequence

                       Stratigraphy                     (3-0)3

Application of the depositional sequence stratigraphic concepts to the interpretation of siliclastic depositional systems. Developments of siliclastic sequence stratigraphy. Con-    temporaneous depositional systems linked to eustatic highstand, lowstand and trans-gressive.


MASC    553  Carbonate Sequence

                       Stratigraphy                     (3-0)3

Principles of the carbonate sequence stratigraphy. Types of carbonate depositional systems; ramp margins, rimmed margins and isolated platforms. Various seismic examples from the carbonate depositional systems.


MASC    555  Fisheries Acoustics            (3-0)3

A general concept of sound waves and sonar systems; wave generation, propagation, reflection and transmission and absorbtion in the sea. Sonar equation, signal, noise, reverberation, sound scattering by fish and zooplankton. echointegration, stock assessment, behaviour of fish.


MASC    558  Introduction to Fisheries                                Science    (3-0)3

Sampling strategies for fisheries; determination of age, sex, maturity and fecundity; food and feeding of fishes; indices to assess the state of the populations; introduction to fish stock assessment; use of computer programs in fisheries sciences.


MASC    567  Advanced Topics in                                        Oceanographic Data                                             Processing              (3-0)3

Special problems of processing data obtained from oceanographic instruments including CTD, ADCP, drifters and floats, profiling or time-series sampling equipment. Analog and digital transmission protocols and automatic processing of real-time and delayed-time oceanographic data.


MASC    568  Signal Processing              (3-0)3

Analysis of periodic and aperiodic signals, discrete and fast Fourier transforms, covariance, spectral analysis of time-series, sampling, aliasing, digitization errors, random signals. Signal filtering, windowing, deconvolution, detection of signals in noise.


MASC    569  Phytoplankton Pigments in

                       Oceanography                 (3-0)3

Marine phytoplankton and their pigment structures. The importance of pigment measurements in the sea. Metabolism of plant cells and functions of phytoplankton pigments. Techniques in qualification and quantification of pigments and their temporal and spatial variability in oceans.


MASC    570  Bio Statistics                     (3-0)3

Descriptive statistics, probability distributions, estimation and hypothesis testing. Analysis of variance, correlation and regression. Analysis of frequencies. Diversity indices, similarity-dissimilarity, cluster analysis, multidimensional scaling, principle component analysis.


MASC    571  Marine Ecology                (3-0)3

Introductory concepts, marine environment. Plankton and primary production, zooplankton, energy flow and mineral recycling, nekton, fish, benthos and benthic communities. Human impact on marine biota.


MASC    572  Aquaculture                      (3-0)3

Principles of aquatic culture. Nutrition and nutritional requirements of some organisms.     Bioeconomics and choice of culture organisms. Production economy, culture of some economically important organisms in marine and fresh water environments.


MASC    573  Fisheries Oceanography   (3-0)3

Behaviour and orientation of fish. Influences of environmental factors; temperature, light and oxygen. Principles of applied oceanography. Sea surface temperature, mixed layer depth and stratification in the sea. Known links in fisheries oceanography; examples of stock collapse and recovery.


MASC    574  Microbiology of Water    (3-0)3

Introduction and development of marine microbiology, Significance of marine microbiology in oceanography. Marine microorganisms: bacteria, fungi algae, colorless protozoa, their distribution in the sea and in the sediment. Influence of physical, chemical and biological factors on aquatic microorganisms. Microorganisms and water pollution. Role of microorganisms in the water. Economic aspects of water microbiology.


MASC    575  Dynamics of Fish Populations                                       (3-0)3

Definitions, historical development and factors affecting fish stocks. Theory of fishing. Under and over-fishing problems and optimal fishery. Analytical and holistic models in single species fish stock assessments. Recruitment, growth and mortalities. Multi species approach. Data requirement, analysis and some application examples.




MASC    576  Biological Aspects of Marine

                       Pollution                           (3-0)3

Definition of pollution, kinds and sources of pollution, accumulation, storage and excretion of pollutants, transfer within the food chain, effects on marine organisms: Plankton, invertebrates and vertebrates.


MASC    577  Production in the Sea       (3-0)3

Definition of primary and secondary production. Phyto and zoo-plankton, sampling design and sampling techniques. Methods for measuring primary and secondary production, factors affecting primary production: nutrients, light and temperature, organic micronutrients and inhibitors, grazing, seasonal changes in primary and secondary production, role of primary production in marine economy.


MASC    578  Marine Biology                 (3-0)3

Divisions of marine environment. Classification of marine organisms: Phytoplankton, zooplankton, marine plants and invertebrates. Biology of marine organisms: Cnidaria, Ctenophora, Annelida, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, Crustacea and Tunicata, their habitat, feeding, reproduction and respiration.


MASC    579  Hydrobiology                   (3-0)3

Rules of growth of aquatic organisms. Colonization and life conditions of inland waters. Biological self purification. Forecast of water quality. Loading capacity of waters. Performance of organisms in wastewater treatment plants.


MASC    580  Marine Benthos                (3-0)3

Classification of benthic organisms. Sampling of benthos; sampling methods, treatment and sorting of samples, preservation and storage of samples. Benthic organisms and pollution; effects of pollution on the distribution of benthic organisms in space and time.


MASC    581  Marine Planktonology-I:

                       Phytoplankton                  (3-0)3

Introduction to marine phytoplankton. General characteristics, classification. Sampling techniques, fixation and preservation. Identification and enumeration. Size classes and contribution to productivity. Factors affecting phytoplankton growth. Distribution, blooming and grazing. Adaptation to pelagic life. Succession and associations. Interactions with other marine organisms.


MASC    582  Marine Planktonology-II:

                       Zooplankton                     (3-0)3

Introduction to marine zooplankton. General characteristics and classification. Sampling and processing techniques. Vertical migration and distributions. Physiology of zooplankton. Interaction with other marine organisms and relation to fisheries.


MASC    583  Marine Geology               (3-0)3

Basic concept of marine geology including the structural and oceanographic setting, the ocean margins and oceanic sediments, as well as history and evolution of the ocean basins and Turkish Seas based on the analysis of marine geology and geophysics.


MASC    584  Bathymetric Mapping      (3-0)3

Principles of bathymetric mapping. Understanding the basic methods and techniques by using exercise maps in the laboratory. Several field exercises and report writing.


MASC    585  Tectonics                           (3-0)3

The solid earth crust-mantle system and its movements. Structure, evolution and the origin of the ocean basins and continental margins. Plate tectonics hypothesis. Relationships of terrestrial and oceanic features.


MASC    586  Marine Sedimentology     (3-0)3

Marine processes of erosion, transportation and deposition, composition, single-grain, texture and structural relationship of sediments. Consolidation of the water-sediment gas system; diagenesis. Sedimentary environment; examples of sedimentological problems relevant to coastal and seafloor engineering.


MASC    587  Introduction to Seismic                                  Stratigraphy          (3-0)3

Principles of seismic sequence analysis, seismic reflection configurations and stratigraphic interpretation of seismic facies, application of seismic reflection configuration to global changes of sea-level, sediment-bedrock relationships. Interpretation of tectonic and depositional systems on the continental shelves.


MASC    588  Geochemistry of Sediments                                           (3-0)3

Principal geochemical cycles and processes in the hydrosphere and lithosphere, radiometric dating.


MASC    589  Geology of Continental                                 Margins  (3-0)3

Comparison of types of continental margins. Deep and shallow geological structure. Processes of formation and evolution of continental margins. Petroleum and mineral deposits comparison to continental analogues.




MASC    590  Marine Minerals               (3-0)3

Occurrence of minerals in the marine environments; iron and manganese oxides, placer deposits, phosphorites, carbonates, evaporates, hydrothermal deposits, silica polymorphs etc.


MASC    591  Marine Seismic Methods I         


Physical properties of acoustic waves and elementary equations of wave motions. Definitions of acoustic energy, energy flux density, acoustic intensity and acoustic impedance. The superposition principle, interference of acoustic waves and the complex waves. Seismic ray theory, application of seismic image principle.


MASC    592  Marine Seismic Methods II


Equations of acoustic wave transmission, Snell's Law. Transmission losses of the sound propagation. Geophysical applications of underwater acoustics. Interpretation of seismic records in the field and in the laboratory.


MASC    593  X-Ray Identification of                                  Sedimentary Minerals            (3-0)3

Theory and application of x-rays to the study of crystalline solids; identification and quantitative techniques.


MASC    595  Depositional Sedimentary

                       Environment                     (3-0)3

Sources of sediments, classification of ancient and modern sedimentary environment. Relationship between material and environment. Important factors controlling the type of deposited sediments. Structure of depositional environment, types of beddings and the texture of sediments.

MASC    596  Special Topics in Marine                                Sciences (Variable Content)                                                 (3-0)3

Approval by the Department.


MASC    597  Special Topics in Marine                                Sciences (Variable Content)                                                 (3-0)3

Approval by the Department.


MASC    598  Special Topics in Marine                                Sciences (Variable Content)                                                 (3-0)3

Approval by the Department.


MASC    599  Special Topics in Marine                                Sciences (Variable Content)                                                 (3-0)3

Approval by the Department.


MASC    600  Ph.D. Research and Thesis    NC


MASC    601  Seminars in Marine Sciences                                          (2-0)NC


MASC    602  Seminars in Marine Sciences                                          (2-0)NC


MASC    800-899 Advanced and Special

                             Studies in Marine Sciences